Publication Ethics

Jurnal Pertahanan dan Bela Negara is an open-access peer-reviewed journal. This statement clarifies the ethical behavior of all parties involved in publishing an article in this journal and allegations of research misconduct, including authors, chief editor, associate editor, editorial board, peer-reviewers, and publisher (Universitas Pertahanan RI). This statement is based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, Reviewers, and Authors.


1. Publication Decisions.

  • Editors’ decisions to accept or reject a paper for publication should be based only on the paper’s importance, originality, and clarity and the study’s relevance to the journal's remit. 
  • The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. 
  • The editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. 
  • The editors may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision. 
  • Editors have to take responsibility for everything they publish. They should have procedures and policies to ensure the quality of the material they publish and maintain the integrity of the published record.

2. Review of Manuscripts.

  • The editor must ensure that each manuscript is initially evaluated by the editor for originality. 
  • The editor should organize and use peer review fairly and wisely. 
  • Editors should explain their peer review processes in the information for authors and also indicate which parts of the journal are peer-reviewed. 
  • Editors should use appropriate peer reviewers for papers considered for publication by selecting people with sufficient expertise and avoiding those with conflicts of interest.

3. Fair Play.

  • The editor must ensure that each manuscript received by the journal is reviewed for its intellectual content without regard to sex, gender, race, religion, citizenship, etc. of the authors. 
  • An important part of the responsibility to make fair and unbiased decisions is the upholding of the principle of editorial independence and integrity. 
  • Editors are in a powerful position to make decisions on publications, which makes it very important that this process is as fair and unbiased as possible.

4. Confidentiality.

  • The editor must ensure that information regarding manuscripts submitted by the authors is kept confidential. 
  • Editors should critically assess any potential breaches of data protection and patient confidentiality. 
  • This includes requiring properly informed consent for the actual research presented consent for publication where applicable.

5. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest.

  • The editor of the Journal will not use unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript for his research without the author's written consent. 
  • Editors should not be involved in decisions about papers in which they have a conflict of interest


1. Confidentiality.

  • Information regarding manuscripts submitted by authors should be kept confidential and be treated as privileged information. 
  • They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

2. Acknowledgement of Sources.

  • Reviewers must ensure that authors have acknowledged all data sources used in the research. 
  • Reviewers should identify relevant published work that the authors have not cited. 
  • Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. 
  • The reviewers should notify the journal immediately if they come across any irregularities, have concerns about ethical aspects of the work, are aware of substantial similarity between the manuscript and a concurrent submission to another journal or a published article, or suspect that misconduct may have occurred during either the research or the writing and submission of the manuscript; reviewers should, however, keep their concerns confidential and not personally investigate further unless the journal asks for further information or advice.

3. Standards of Objectivity.

  • Submitted manuscripts must be reviewed objectively, and the reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments. 
  • The reviewers should follow journals’ instructions on the specific feedback required unless there are good reasons not to. 
  • The reviewers should be constructive in their reviews and provide feedback that will help the authors to improve their manuscript. 
  • The reviewer should make clear which suggested additional investigations are essential to support claims made in the manuscript under consideration and which will just strengthen or extend the work

4. Disclosure and Conflict of Interest.

  • Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. 
  • Reviewers should not consider manuscripts with conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. 
  • In the case of double-blind review, if they suspect the identity of the author(s) notify the journal if this knowledge raises any potential conflict of interest.

5. Promptness.

  • The reviewers should respond in a reasonable time frame. 
  • The reviewers only agree to review a manuscript if they are confident they can return a review within the proposed or mutually agreed time frame, informing the journal promptly if they require an extension. 
  • If a reviewer feels him/her can't complete review of the manuscript within the stipulated time then this information must be communicated to the editor so that the manuscript can be sent to another reviewer


1. Reporting Standards.

  • Authors should present an accurate account of the original research and objectively discuss its significance. 
  • Researchers should present their results honestly without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. 
  • A manuscript should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. 
  • Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. 
  • Manuscripts should follow the submission guidelines of the journal.

2. Originality and Plagiarism.

  • Authors must ensure that they have written entirely original work. 
  • The manuscript should not be submitted concurrently to more than one publication unless the editors have agreed to co-publication. 
  • Relevant previous work and publications should be appropriately acknowledged and referenced by other researchers and the author’s own. 
  • The primary literature should be cited where possible. 
  • Original wording taken directly from publications by other researchers should appear in quotation marks with the appropriate citations.

3. Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publications.

  • The author should not generally submit the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently. 
  • The author is also expected not to publish redundant manuscripts or manuscripts describing the same research in multiple journals. 
  • Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. 
  • Multiple publications arising from a single research project should be identified as such, and the primary publication should be referenced

4. Acknowledgement of Sources.

  • Authors should acknowledge all data sources used in the research and cite publications that have influenced the nature of the reported work. 
  • Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given.

5. Authorship of the Paper.

  • The authorship of research publications should accurately reflect individuals’ contributions to the work and its reporting. 
  • Authorship should be limited to those who have contributed significantly to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. 
  • Others who have made significant contributions must be listed as co-authors. 
  • In cases where major contributors are listed as authors, those who made less substantial, or purely technical contributions to the research or the publication are listed in an acknowledgment section. 
  • Authors also ensure that all the authors have seen and agreed to the submitted version of the manuscript and their inclusion of names as co-authors.

6. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest.

  • All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. 
  • All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

7. Fundamental Errors in Published Works.

  • Suppose the author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in the submitted manuscript. In that case, the author should promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

8. Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects.

  • The author should identify in the manuscript if the work involves chemicals, procedures, or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use.