Gugulethu Linda Nyathi(1*), Helda Risman(2),

(1) Indonesia Defense University Public Works and National Housing, Ministry of Local Government Office of the Secretary Private Bag 7706, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe
(2) IDU
(*) Corresponding Author


Several conflict interventions have been taken place in the DRC, including political and diplomatic efforts. In 1998, the South African Development Cooperation (SADC) intervened through a combination of military and mediation activities. There was a military intervention from three SADC countries - Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe, under the auspices of the SADC Allied Forces. Recovery from the conflict that occurred from 2003 up to 2019 has not been smooth. The main cause of the second war was politics. President Laurent Kabila was seeking to expel Rwanda from the government. Rwandan troops supporting the Tutsi invaded and social conflict with ethnic connotations increased. The conflict continued until a transitional government was created to share power among all vice presidents. At that time, it was perceived that a military outcome would not produce the lasting peace required for the reconstruction of the DRC.

Full Text:



Bjorkdahl, A. (2016). Peace Building and Friction. In Global and Local Encounters in Post Conflict Societies. Routledge.

Burrowes, R. J. (1996). The Strategy of Non-Violent Defense: A Gandhian Approach. University of New York Press.

Chinyanganya, M. (2005). The Democratic Republic of Congo Crisis: The Search For A Regional Security Model. University of Zimbabwe.

Cottey, A., & Foster, A. (2004). Reshaping Defence Diplomacy: New Roles for Military Cooperation and Assistance. Adelphi Paper.

Cresswel, J. ., & McCoy, B. (2014). Mixed Methods Research and Documentary Development. In The Handbook of Emergent Technologies in Social Research (S. Hesse-B). Oxford University Press.

Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting To Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In (2nd ed.). Penguin.

Galtung, J. (2000). Violence, Peace and Peace Research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167–191.

Gaynor, N. (2016). The limits to community-based conflict resolution in North-East Congo. Community Development Journal, 51(2), 268–284.

Glasl, F. (2002). Conflict Management. In A Handbook for Executives and Counselors (7th ed.). Verlag Freies Geistesleben.

Harvey, D. (2004). The New Imperialism. Oxford University Press.

Jackson, R. (2009). Peace Studies and International Relations. In The SAGE Handbook of Conflict. SAGE.

Kolf, A., & Lenfant, F. (2006). Partnerships for Peace and Development in the Fragile States: Identifying Missing Links. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 29(4), 287–303.

Lederach, J. P. (2005). The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. In The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace.

Lenfant, F. (2006). Business-NGO Collaboration In A Conflict Setting. Partnership Activities in the DRC. Journal of Business and Society, 51(3), 478–511.

Montville, J. (1981). Conflict and Peace Making In Multi-Ethnic Societies. Penguin.

Moore, D. (2001). Neoliberal Globalization and the Triple Crises of “Modernization†in Africa: Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Africa. Third World Quarterly, 22(6), 909–929.

Nye, J. S. J. (2004). Soft Power: The Means To Success In World Politics. Public Affairs Book.

Patel, H. (2006). No Master, No Mortgage. Regional Development at the International Level, Vol (2). In African and Canadian Perspectives. University Press of America.

Rodriguez, M. (2011). The FDLR as an Obstacle to Peace in the DRC. A Journal of Social Justice, 23(11), 214–317.

Ross, M. H. (1993). Management of Conflict. Interpretations and Interest in Comparative Perspective. New Haven. The Yale University Press.

Wallensteen, P. (2002). United Nations Arms Embargoes: Their Impact on Arms Flows and Target Behaviour. SIPRI and Uppsala University.

Zeleza, T. (2008). The Resolution of African Conflicts. In Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Ohio University.


Journal Terindex di Garuda

Office Address:
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat
Republic of Indonesia Defense University
Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, Paseban,Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10440, Indonesia

Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Pertahanan: Media Informasi tentang Kajian dan Strategi Pertahanan yang Mengedepankan Identity, Nasionalism dan Integrity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.