Judhariksawan Judhariksawan(1*), Aidir Amin Daud(2), Edmondus Sadesto Tandungan(3),

(1) Fakultas Hukum Universitas Hasanuddin
(2) Fakultas Hukum Universitas Hasanuddin
(3) Program Doktor Ilmu Hukum Universitas Hasanuddin
(*) Corresponding Author


Relocation of the national capital of Indonesia to the Borneo region is not only fraught with considerations of the socio-economic, political, and physical environment. The safety factor is also a very important aspect because the capital city is the center of gravity of the country. Nusantara, the new capital city, directly faces the Makassar Strait which has been designated as an archipelagic sea lane. An archipelagic sea lane must be subject to the international law of the sea, especially the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982. Foreign voyages and flights have the right of normal mode and continuous passage through archipelagic sea lanes. Therefore, they cannot be blocked. The right of passage is not only granted to merchant ships but also to military ships and even submarines. The extent of the security threat to the capital due to the abovementioned legal regime is analyzed by normative legal research, using a conceptual approach to the legal norms governing the sea lane. This study aims to provide an overview of the legal norms that apply to the Makassar Strait as a consideration in developing a defense and security strategy for the national capital, the archipelago. In conclusion, Nusantara in the Makassar Strait must pay attention to the international law of the sea norms in preparing the defense and security strategy for the new national capital city.

Full Text:



Agoes, E. R. (2009). Upaya Diplomatik Indonesia dalam Penetapan Alur-Alur Laut Kepulauan Indonesia (ALKI). Indonesian Journal of International Law, 6(3).

Bappenas. (2021). Buku Saku Pemindahan Ibu Kota Negara. Jakarta: Bappenas. Retrieved from

Bateman, S. (2005). Security And The Law Of The Sea In East Asia: Navigational Regimes And Exclusive Economic Zones. London: Paper for SLS and BIICL Symposium on the Law of the Sea.

Buntoro, K. (2017). Nusantara & ALKI (Alur Laut Kepulauan Indonesia). Jakarta: Rajagrafindo Persada.

Campbell, P. (2005). Indonesian Archipelagic Sea Lanes. In G. Gilbert & R. J. Davitt (Eds.), Australian Maritime Issues 2005 SPC-A Annual (pp. 115–119). Australia: Commonwealth of Australia.

Cay, V. J. E. (2010). Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage and Maritime Security in Archipelagic Southeast Asia. World Maritime University, Swaden.

Edwards, J. P. (1999). The Development and Operational Impact of Indonesia’s Approved Partial System of Archipelagic Sea Lanes. Newport.

Forward, C. (2009). Archipelagic Sea-Lanes in Indonesia – Their Legality in International Law. Australian and New Zealand Maritime Law Journal, 23(2), 143–156.

Government Regulation Number 37 of 2002 concerning the Rights and Obligations of Foreign Ships and Aircraft In seeking the Right of Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage Through Archipelagic Sea Lanes Assigned.

Handini, W. P., & Risdiarto, D. (2019). Kedaulatan Wilayah Udara di Atas Alur Laut Kepulauan Indonesia (ALKI). Jurnal Rechtsvinding, 8(2), 277–292.

IMO Resolution MSC.72(69) Resolution on Adoption, Designation, and Substitution of Archipelagic Sea Lanes. Pub. L. No. MSC 69/22/Add.1, IMO.

International Maritime Organization. (2019, June 14). New Traffic Separation Schemes.

Kimura, S., Morikawa, T., & Singh, S. (2016). Sea Lane Security in the Selected East Asia Summit Countries. In Sea Lane Security of Oil and Liquefied Natural Gas in the East Asia Summit Region (pp. 41–59). Jakarta: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia.

Klein, N. (2019). Maritime Autonomous Vehicles within the International Law Framework to Enhance Maritime Security (Vol. 95). Vol. 95. Newport: The Stockton Center for International Law.

Law Number 17 of 1985 concerning Ratification of the United Nations Convention on The Law of the Sea (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea).

Marzuki, P. M. (2005). Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Masahiro, M. (2006). The Submerged Passage of s Submarine Through the Territorial Sea - the Incident of a Chinese Atomic-Powered Submarine (pp. 243–250). Singapore: Singapore Year Book of International Law.

Ministry of National Development Planning/National Development Planning Agency of the Republic of Indonesia. (2021). Buku Saku Pemindahan Ibu Kota Negara. Jakarta Pusat.

Nadimi, F. (2019, July 24). Clarifying Freedom of Navigation in the Gulf. Retrieved November 27, 2022, from

Reva, D. (2016). Capital City Relocation and National Security: The Cases of Nigeria and Kazakhstan. University of Pretoria, Pretoria.

Rukmana, D. (2020). Pemindahan Ibu Kota. Retrieved from DPR website:

Stephens, D. (2006). The Legal Efficacy of Freedom of Navigation Assertions (Vol. 80, pp. 235–256). Vol. 80, pp. 235–256. Newport: International Law Studies U.S Naval War College.

Strange, J. L., & Iron, R. (2004). Center of Gravity: What Clausewitz Really Meant. Washington, DC.

The Maritime Safety Committee. (n.d.). Resolution MSC.72(69): Adoption, Designation And Substitution Of Archipelagic Sea Lanes (Adopted on 19 May 1998).

United States Department of State Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. (2014). Limits in the Seas Indonesia: Archipelagic and other Maritime Claims and Boundaries (No. 141). Washington, DC.

Xiao, L., Chen, S., Xiong, S., Qi, P., Wang, T., Gong, Y., & Liu, N. (2022). Security Risk Assessment and Visualization Study of Key Nodes of Sea Lanes: Case Studies on the Tsugaru Strait and the Makassar Strait. Natural Hazards, 114, 2657–2681.


Journal Terindex di Garuda

Office Address:
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat
Republic of Indonesia Defense University
Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, Paseban,Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10440, Indonesia

Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Pertahanan: Media Informasi tentang Kajian dan Strategi Pertahanan yang Mengedepankan Identity, Nasionalism dan Integrity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.