A Healthy Game-Theoretic Evaluation of NATO and Indonesia's Policies in the Context of International Law

Rita Komalasari(1*), Cecep Mustafa(2),

(1) Yarsi University
(2) Ibnu Chaldun University
(*) Corresponding Author


This study examines the policies of two prominent actors, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Indonesia while considering their adherence to international law. The analysis is conducted through the lens of game theory, which provides a framework for evaluating strategic interactions in the cyber domain. This study aims to explore how game theory can be applied to assess the policies of NATO and Indonesia in combating and to establish the link between game-theoretic evaluation and conflict resolution in Indonesia's cyber landscape. By understanding strategic interactions and motivations of various actors, this study seeks to provide insights into fostering international cooperation, promoting responsible state behavior, and enhancing cybersecurity. This study employs a qualitative research design, relying on literature reviews, policy analyses, and case studies to examine the cybersecurity policies of NATO and Indonesia. Game theory serves as the primary analytical framework to model cyber conflicts and interactions between different actors. The policies of NATO and Indonesia are evaluated concerning cooperation, competition, and compliance with international law. The analysis reveals that both NATO and Indonesia employ distinct approaches to combating. NATO's collective response emphasizes coordination, information sharing, and cooperative defense strategies, reinforcing international cybersecurity efforts. On the other hand, Indonesia's response is shaped by its unique challenges and priorities, leading to tailored policies and collaborations. Game-theoretic evaluation establishes the importance of cooperation, deterrence, and adherence to international law in resolving conflicts arising from cyber threats in Indonesia. This research highlights the significance of international partnerships, capacity building, and context-specific best practices for a more secure digital environment in Indonesia and beyond. Ultimately, game-theoretic evaluation proves instrumental in shaping effective cybersecurity strategies and promoting responsible behavior in the ever-evolving cyber landscape.


cyber terrorism; game theory; conflict resolution

Full Text:



Broeders, D., De Busser, E., Cristiano, F., & Tropina, T. (2022). Revisiting Past Cyber Operations in Light of New Cyber Norms and Interpretations of International Law: Inching Towards Lines in the Sand? Journal of Cyber Policy, 7(1), 97–135. https://doi.org/10.1080/23738871.2022.2041061

Burton, J. (2023). Cyber Security. In S. Mayer (Ed.), Research Handbook on NATO (pp. 267–279). United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Caliskan, M., & Liégeois, M. (2021). The Concept of ‘Hybrid Warfare’ Undermines NATO’s Strategic Thinking: Insights from Interviews with NATO Officials. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 32(2), 295–319. https://doi.org/10.1080/09592318.2020.1860374

Cyber Security Agency of Singapore. (2022, November 7). 17th Iteration of ASEAN CERT Incident Drill Tests CERTs’ Preparedness Against Disruptive Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved July 29, 2023, from https://www.csa.gov.sg/news-events/news-articles/2022/17th-iteration-of-asean-cert-incident-drill-tests-certs-preparedness-against-disruptive-cyber-attacks

Do, C. T., Tran, N. H., Hong, C., Kamhoua, C. A., Kwiat, K. A., Blasch, E., … Iyengar, S. S. (2017). Game Theory for Cyber Security and Privacy. ACM Computing Surveys, 50(2), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.1145/3057268

Efthymiopoulos, M. P. (2019). A Cyber-Security Framework for Development, Defense and Innovation at NATO. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-019-0105-z/metrics

Fadia, A., Nayfeh, M., & Noble, J. (2020, September 16). Follow the Leaders: How Governments can Combat Intensifying Cybersecurity Risks. Retrieved July 11, 2023, from https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/follow-the-leaders-how-governments-can-combat-intensifying-cybersecurity-risks

Goel, S. (2020). National Cyber Security Strategy and the Emergence of Strong Digital Borders. Connections, 19(1), 73–86.

Gottemoeller, R., Hedgecock, K., Magula, J., & Poast, P. (2022). Engaging with Emerged and Emerging Domains: Cyber, Space, and Technology in the 2022 NATO Strategic Concept. Defence Studies, 22(3), 516–524. https://doi.org/10.1080/14702436.2022.2082955

Guo, H., Li, X., Hu, K., Dai, X., Jia, D., Boccaletti, S., … Wang, Z. (2020). The Dynamics of Cooperation in Asymmetric Sub-Populations. New Journal of Physics, 22. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/ab9e89

Kasper, A., & Krasznay, C. (2019). Towards Pollution-Control in Cyberspace: Problem Structure and Institutional Design in International Cybersecurity. International and Comparative Law Review, 19(2), 76–96. https://doi.org/10.2478/iclr-2019-0015

Melaku, H. M. (2023). A Dynamic and Adaptive Cybersecurity Governance Framework. Journal of Cybersecurity and Privacy, 3(3), 327–350. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcp3030017

Mironeanu, C., Archip, A., Amarandei, C.-M., & Craus, M. (2021). Experimental Cyber Attack Detection Framework. Electronics 2021, 10(14). https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141682

Nadjib, M., & Cangara, H. (2017). Cyber Terrorism Handling in Indonesia. Conference Proceedings of the Academy of Business and Retail Management, 9, 283. Academy of Business and Retail Management.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2016). Warsaw Summit Communiqué issued by Heads of State and Government Participating in the Meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Warsaw 8-9 July 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2023, from https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_133169.htm

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2023, August 3). Cyber Defence. Retrieved July 30, 2023, from https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_78170.htm

Nweke, L. O., & Wolthusen, S. (2020). Legal Issues Related to Cyber Threat Information Sharing Among Private Entities for Critical Infrastructure Protection. 12th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, 63–78. NATO CCDCOE Publications.

Radziwill, Y. (2015). Cyber-Attacks and the Exploitable Imperfections of International Law. The Netherlands: Brill.

Ramadhan, I. (2022). ASEAN Consensus and Forming Cybersecurity Regulation in Southeast Asia. 1st International Conference on Contemporary Risk Studies. South Jakarta: European Union Digital Library. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.31-3-2022.2320684

Regulation of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 47 of 2023 concerning the National Cyber Security Strategy and Cyber Crisis Management.

Republic of Indonesia State Cyber and Crypto Agency. (2020). Strategi Keamanan Siber Nasional Republik Indonesia.

Romaniuk, S. N., Fotescu, A., & Chihaia, M. (2021). NATO’s Evolving Cyber Security Policy and Strategy. In Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy (1st ed.). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429399718-22/nato-evolving-cyber-security-policy-strategy-scott-romaniuk-alexander-fotescu-mihai-chihaia

Ruhl, C., Hollis, D., Hoffman, W., & Maurer, T. (2020). Cyberspace and Geopolitics: Assessing Global Cybersecurity Norm Processes at a Crossroads. Washington, DC.

Shalamanov, V., & Bankov, B. (2022). NATO Cyber Defence Policy and Hybrid Threats: The Way to Enhance Our Resilience. In M. Bogdanoski (Ed.), Building Cyber Resilience against Hybrid Threats (pp. 1–18). IOS Press Ebooks. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3233/NICSP61

Shopina, I., Khomiakov, D., Khrystynchenko, N. P., Zhukov, S., & Shpenov, D. (2020). Cybersecurity: Legal and Organizational Support in Leading Countries, NATO and EU Standards. Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues, 9(3), 977–992. https://doi.org/10.9770/jssi.2020.9.3(22)

Steingartner, W., & Galinec, D. (2021). Cyber Threats and Cyber Deception in Hybrid Warfare. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 18(3), 25–45.

The ASEAN Secretariat. (n.d.). ASEAN Cybersecurity Cooperation Strategy (2021-2025). Jakarta.

Thinyane, M., & Christine, D. (2020). Cyber Resilience in Asia-Pacific: a Review of National Cybersecurity Strategies. Macau: United Nations University.

World Economic Forum. (2020). The Global Risks Report 2020. Switzerland.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jp.v9i2.16794

Journal Terindex di Garuda

Office Address:
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat
Republic of Indonesia Defense University
Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, Paseban,Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10440, Indonesia
Email: jurnal.unhan@idu.ac.id

Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Pertahanan: Media Informasi tentang Kajian dan Strategi Pertahanan yang Mengedepankan Identity, Nasionalism dan Integrity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.