Examining the Participation of Female Peacekeepers in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: The Contributions of Islamic Countries

Ridha Nahdhiyah Alma Amaliyah(1*), Hadidah Sallimi(2), Surwandono Surwandono(3),

(1) Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
(2) Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
(3) Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


The world of International Relations will never be separated from its history. Countries in the Middle East, especially Muslim-majority countries, still have a lot of conflicts going on. However, the contribution of Islam to the world of peace never stops. In the contemporary world, for example, this contribution is realized through the participation of Islamic countries in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UN PKO). This study aims to analyze the contributions of female peacekeepers of Islamic countries. This research uses the concept of peacekeeping and analyzes secondary data with the quality method and literature review approach as the data collection technique.  The result of this research shows that eight of 12 peace missions involved Muslim-majority countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Egypt, and Indonesia, which sent the most female peacekeepers. This study found that the Muslim-majority countries have successfully implemented the UN PKO program, especially for the increasing number of female peacekeepers agenda. It also found that the female peacekeeper has a substantive and public function in the operations, such as their contribution to the operation in logistical, informational branches, and medical aid aspects. However, the UN PKO still emphasizes masculinity. This study shows that domestic issues including inadequate military personnel and social stigmatization of women's peacekeeping engagement greatly reduce women's representation in UN peacekeeping operations. This inherently impacts the Women, Peace, and Security agenda.

Full Text:



Al-Fanjari, A. S. (2019). Rufaidah: Kisah Perawat Wanita Pertama dalam Sejarah Islam (Translated). Yogyakarta: Spektrum Nusantara.

Amar, P. (2012). Egypt as a Globalist Power: Mapping Military Participation in Decolonizing Internationalism, Repressive Entrepreneurialism, and Humanitarian Globalization between the Revolutions of 1952 and 2011. Globalizations, 9(1), 179–194. https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2012.656373

Azizah, N., Maksum, A., & Hidayahtulloh, M. A. (2020). Enhancing Women Contribution in Peace, Conflict Resolution and Security Agenda: Indonesian Female Peacekeepers in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (Garuda Contingent-Konga). Revista UNISCI, 18(53), 111–129. https://doi.org/10.31439/unisci-86

Azizah, N., Sallimi, H., & Dwiyanti, A. (2022). The Increasing Number of Female Troops in Indonesia’s Peacekeeping Operations: Why Women’s Presence Matters? Journal of Islamic World and Politics, 6(1), 81–103. https://doi.org/10.18196/jiwp.v6i1.13509

Bridges, D., & Horsfall, D. (2009). Increasing Operational Effectiveness in UN Peacekeeping: Toward a Gencer-Balanced Force. Armed Forces & Society, 36(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/0095327x08327818

Budhi, V. I. (2022). Analyses of Female Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operation. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey.

Carreiras, H. (2010). Gendered Culture in Peacekeeping Operations. International Peacekeeping, 17(4), 471–485. https://doi.org/10.1080/13533312.2010.516655

De Carvalho, B., & De Coning, C. (2013). Rising Powers and the Future of Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding. Oslo.

DeGroot, G. J. (2001). A Few Good Women: Gender Stereotypes, the Military and Peacekeeping. International Peacekeeping, 8(2), 23–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/13533310108413893

Demurenko, A., & Nikitin, A. (1997). Basic Terminology and Concepts in International Peacekeeping Operations: an Analytical Review (Vol. 6). Vol. 6. London: Frank Cass.

Dewi, E., Satya, P. A. N. I. P., & Arsanti, T. R. (2020). The Unboxing the Legal Background for Women Involvement in Indonesia’s Peacekeeping Operation Mission: Challenges and Opportunities. Proceedings of the First Brawijaya International Conference on Social and Political Sciences. Malang: EAI.

Handayani, S. (2016, February 12). Rufaidah Binti Sa’ad Al-Anshari Pelopor Perawatan Para Mujahid. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://republika.co.id/berita/koran/dialog-jumat/16/02/12/o2f1s521-rufaidah-binti-saad-alanshari-pelopor-perawatan-para-mujahid

Hanief, Y. N. (2021). Bibliometric Analysis of Sports Studies in the “Journal Sport Area.” Journal Sport Area, 6(2), 263–274.

Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research. (2020). Conflict Barometer 2019. Heidelberg: Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research.

Howe, J. (2022). Progress and Challenges to Implementing Women, Peace and Security in Southeast Asia. Issues & Insights, 22(1).

Hussein, N. A. (2018, March 28). Egypt Women Fight for Right to Army Combat Posts. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2018/03/egypt-women-join-army-controversy-recruitment-sharia-law.html

Kantaria, P. (2018, November 30). Women in the Army: the Percentage of Females in the World’s Biggest Armies. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://www.army-technology.com/uncategorized/women-in-the-army/

Karim, S. (2017). Reevaluating Peacekeeping Effectiveness: Does Gender Neutrality Inhibit Progress? International Interactions, 43(5), 822–847. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050629.2017.1231113

Kiswarjanu, D. S. A., & Rosa, E. M. (2022). Spiritual Leadership in Healthcare: A Bibliometric Analysis. Jurnal Aisyah: Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan, 7(2), 355–362. https://doi.org/10.30604/jika.v7i2.914

Kovatch, B. (2016). Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions: A Case Study of MONUC and MONUSCO. Journal of the Middle East and Africa, 7(2), 157–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520844.2016.1192978

Lia, B. (1998). Islamist Perceptions of the United Nations and Its Peacekeeping Missions: Some Preliminary Findings. International Peacekeeping, 5(2), 38–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/13533319808413718

Lofland, J., Snow, D. A., Anderson, L., & Lofland, L. H. (2006). Analyzing Social Settings: a Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis. Belmont: Thomson Learning.

Malik, S. (n.d.). Pakistani Women Peacekeepers: Role Models, Ambassadors & Icons of Empowerment. Retrieved July 10, 2023, from https://www.hilal.gov.pk/her-article/detail/njyzoa==.html

Mazurana, D. (2003). Do Women Matter in Peacekeeping? Women in Police, Military and Civilian Peacekeeping. Canadian Woman Studies, 22(2), 64–71.

Moleong, L. J. (2018). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Murwanto, I. P., Rosyidin, M., Susiatiningsih, R. H., & Paramasatya, S. (2020). Indonesia’s Commitment to the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations in Constructivist Perspective: Case Study of Roadmap Vision 4.000 Peacekeepers 2015-2019 Policy. Jurnal Pertahanan, 6(3), 342–356. https://doi.org/10.33172/jp.v6i3.869

Newby, V. (2019, May 21). Challenges for Female Peacekeepers Can Come from within UN Militaries. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://www.kpsrl.org/publication/challenges-for-female-peacekeepers-can-come-from-within-un-militaries

Prime Minister’s Office Armed Forces Division. (n.d.). Female Participation of Bangladesh in UN Peace Operation. Retrieved July 9, 2023, from https://afd.gov.bd/un-peacekeeping/female-participation

Princeton University. (n.d.). Peacekeeping/Peace Enforcement. Retrieved July 10, 2023, from https://pesd.princeton.edu/node/561

Rahmasari, S. (2019, September 16). Menjamurnya Sekolah Islam dalam Mengembalikan Kejayaan Islam. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://www.uin-antasari.ac.id/menjamurnya-sekolah-islam-dalam-mengembalikan-kejayaan-islam/

Razak, M. A. A., Khamis, K. A., Omar, R., & Udin, M. M. (2021). Penglibatan Negara-Negara Islam dalam Misi Pengamanan antara Bangsa. Research in Islamic Studies, 8(2), 47–56.

Sultana, S. T., & Salahuddin, S. M. (2020). Women in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Drivers and Barriers of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies Journal, 41(1), 21–49.

United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.-a). Pakistani Women Peacekeepers at the Forefront of a Military Hospital in Mali. Retrieved July 10, 2023, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/pakistani-women-peacekeepers-forefront-of-military-hospital-mali

United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.-b). Troop and Police Contributors. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/troop-and-police-contributors

United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.-c). Uniformed Gender Parity Strategy 2018-2028. Retrieved July 9, 2023, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/uniformed-gender-parity-strategy-2018-2028-full-text

United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.-d). United Nations Peacekeeping began in 1948 when the Security Council authorized the deployment of UN military observers to the Middle East. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/our-history

United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.-e). What is Peacekeeping. Retrieved July 24, 2023, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/what-is-peacekeeping

United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.-f). What Peacekeeping Does. Retrieved July 7, 2023, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en

United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.-g). Women in Peacekeeping. Retrieved July 24, 2023, from https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/women-peacekeeping

Usden, R., & Juergenliemk, H. (2014). History of UN Peacekeeping Factsheet. Belgium: Global Governance Intitute.

Uz Zaman, R., & Biswas, N. R. (2016). Peacekeeping Contributor Profile: Bangladesh. Retrieved July 10, 2023, from https://www.providingforpeacekeeping.org/2014/04/03/contributor-profile-bangladesh/

World Economic Forum. (2022). Global Gender Gap Report 2022. Switzerland.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33172/jp.v9i2.2239

Journal Terindex di Garuda

Office Address:
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat
Republic of Indonesia Defense University
Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, Paseban,Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10440, Indonesia
Email: jurnal.unhan@idu.ac.id

Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Pertahanan: Media Informasi tentang Kajian dan Strategi Pertahanan yang Mengedepankan Identity, Nasionalism dan Integrity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.