Indonesia’s Non-Military Threats Dynamics: A Philosophical Perspective

Liska Rahayu(1*), Desi Natalia Sihombing(2), Puguh Santoso(3),

(1) Indonesia Defense University
(2) Indonesia Defense University
(3) Indonesia Defense University
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims to provide a novel philosophical analysis of the non-military threats facing Indonesia, grounded in an examination of their ontological nature, epistemological understanding, and axiological value implications. Amidst an increasingly complex global security landscape, non-military challenges like pandemics, climate change, cyber-attacks, and terrorism have emerged as critical concerns. This study employs a descriptive qualitative methodology and thematic analysis to comprehensively explore and understand the multifaceted dynamics of the non-military threats confronting Indonesia. The research findings depict that through an ontological lens, the research categorizes Indonesia's diverse non-military threats into three forms: the ideational synthesis of socio-political and technological factors (idealism); empirically observable phenomena like natural disasters and disease outbreaks (materialism); and existential risks integrating conceptual and physical elements like radicalism and separatism (dualism). Epistemologically, comprehensive data acquisition from varied sources, coupled with interdisciplinary analytical frameworks involving experts, government, and community stakeholders, enables contextually grounded threat assessments and mitigation policies responsive to evolving conditions. Axiologically, ethical principles of human dignity, social justice, and environmental stewardship rooted in Indonesian cultural values must anchor decision-making processes. The study recommends refining frameworks to better understand diverse threats, improving processes for collecting and analyzing data, incorporating ethical considerations into policy development, fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, and integrating local wisdom into defense strategies for enhanced resilience at both community and national levels.


Defense philosophy, Defense science, Non-military threats, Indonesia Defense

Full Text:



Abdullah, I. (2020). COVID-19 Threat and Fear in Indonesia. Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(5), 488–490.

Anggara, S. (2013). Sistem Politik Indonesia (Cetakan 1). Bandung: CV Pustaka Setia.

Arifin, S., & Herdiani, E. T. (2023). Modeling of COVID-19 Cases in Indonesia with the Method of Geographically Weighted Regression. Jurnal Matematika, Statistika Dan Komputasi, 19(2), 342–350.

Bakhri, S., Susmoro, H., & Rudiawan, B. (2023). Defense Strategy for Inland Waters, Indonesian Archipelagic Sea Lanes II to Prevent Non-Military Threats in the Capital of the New Nation. AURELIA: Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat Indonesia, 23(1).

Baldwin, D. A. (1997). The Concept of Security. Review of International Studies, 23(1), 5–26.

Berkes, F., & Folke, C. (1998). Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bland, B., Laksmana, E., & Kassam, N. (2021). Charting Their Own Course How Indonesians See the World. Retrieved from Institute Indonesia Poll 2021.pdf

Bostrom, N. (2013). Existential Risk Prevention as A Global Priority. Global Policy, 4(1), 15–31.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using Thematic Analysis In Psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.

Creswell, J., & Poth, C. (2016). Second Edition Qualitative Inquiry& Research Design Choosing Among Five Approaches. California: Sage Publication.

Darmono, B. (2010). Konsep Dan Sistem Keamanan Nasional Indonesia. Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, 15(1), 1–41. Retrieved from

Desjarlais, R., & Throop, C. J. (2011). Phenomenological Approaches In Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 40, 87–102.

Desmawati, D., & Bachtiar, F. (2021). Public Perspectives Regarding COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey of Adults in Jakarta Bogor Depok Tangerang Bekasi Area. Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Kesehatan, 9(1), 33–48.

Ermisa, E., & Zulfah, A. Y. (2023). Ontologi Ilmu Pengetahuan. Journal on Education, 6(1), 35–45.

Firdaus, I., Midhio, I. W., & Nakir, M. (2020). The Urgencies of Collaborative Governance in Strengthening Non-Military Defense. International Affairs and Global Strategy, 86, 52–60.

Hama, H. H. (2017). State Security, Societal Security, and Human Security. Jadavpur Journal of International Relations, 21(1).

Hapsari, S. (2018). Gaya Kepemimpinan Presiden Joko Widodo dalam Perspektif Sistem Pertahanan Negara sebagai Upaya Menghadapi Ancaman Asimetrik Abad 21. Salam: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i, 5(2), 139–146.

Hariyanto, W., Komalawati, K., Romdon, A. S., Oelviani, R., Basuki, S., & Utomo, B. (2022). Jogo Tonggo: Utilising Local Wisdom as a Resilient Strategy During COVID-19 Pandemic in Central Java Indonesia. Journal of Resilient Economies, 2(1), 142–153.

Hauenstein, M., Smith, M., & Souva, M. (2021). Democracy, External Threat, and Military Spending. Research & Politics, 8(4), 1–13.

Held, V. (2006). The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hodge, J. G., & Weidenaar, K. (2017). Public Health Emergencies as Threats to National Security. Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 9(81), 81–94. Retrieved from

Ilmar, A., Kusuma, A. J., Nathanael, G. K., & Indrawan, J. (2022). COVID-19: A Nontraditional Threat. KnE Social Sciences. KnE Social Sciences, 38–45.

Inglehart, R. F., & Norris, P. (2012). The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Understanding Human Security. Scandinavian Political Studies, 35(1), 79–96.

Jantsch, E. (1970). Inter- and Transdisciplinary University: A Systems Approach To Education and Innovation. Policy Sciences, 1(1), 7–37.

Kattsoff, L. (2004). Pengantar Filsafat. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana Yogya.

Knight, G. R. (1998). Issues & Alternatives in Educational Philosophy. Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press.

Larosa, T. (2019). Redefining Indonesia’s National Security in Ensuring the Survival of the Nation. Jurnal Pertahanan, 5(1), 1–18.

Law Number 3 of 2002 concerning National Defense, Pub. L. No. 3 (2002).

Liddell, H. G., & Scott, R. (1996). A Greek-English Lexicon (H. S. J. & R. McKenzie, Ed.). New York: Clarendon Press.

Lowy Institute. (2021). Security and Threats. Lowy Institute. Retrieved October 28, 2023, from

Lv, Y., & Xie, C. (2010). A Framework for Ontology Integration and Evaluation. 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Networks and Intelligent Systems, ICINIS 2010.

Mahendradhata, Y., Lestari, T., & Djalante, R. (2022). Strengthening Government’s Response to COVID-19 in Indonesia: A Modified Delphi Study of Medical and Health Academics. Plos One, 1–20.

Mas’oed, M. (2003). Negara, Kapital dan Demokrasi. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Neill, M., Taliaferro, A. C., Tillman, M. E., Morgan, G. D., & Hinkle, W. P. (2017). Defense Governance and Management. In Improving the Defense Management Capabilities of Foreign Defense Institutions. Institute For Defense Analysis. Retrieved from

Ningsih, S. J., Wadjdi, A. F., & Budiyanto, S. (2022). Kepemimpinan Strategis dalam Pertahanan Indonesia. Citizen: Jurnal Ilmiah Multidisiplin Indonesia, 2(1), 88–95.

Nordhaus, W., Oneal, J. R., & Russett, B. (2012). The Effects of The International Security Environment on National Military Expenditures: A Multicountry Study. International Organization, 66(3), 419–513.

Paleri, P. (2008). National security: Imperatives and Challenges. In Journal of American History. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Perry, R. W., & Lindell, M. K. (2003). Preparedness for Emergency Response: Guidelines for the Emergency Planning Process. Disasters, 27(4), 336–350.

Pierre, A. J., & Fukuyama, F. (1992). Reviewed Work: The End of History and the Last Man. Foreign Affairs, 71(2), 189.

Riyanto, J. (2017). Kewaspadaan Nasional, Bela Negara dan Integrasi Nasional. Wira: Media Informasi Kementerian Pertahanan. Retrieved from

Rosenfield, P. L. (1992). The Potential of Transdisciplinary Research for Sustaining and Extending Linkages Between the Health and Social Sciences. Social Science and Medicine, 35(11), 1343–1357.

Rosnawati, R., Syukri, A. S. A., Badarussyamsi, B., & Rizki, A. F. (2021). Aksiologi Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Manfaatnya Bagi Manusia. Jurnal Filsafat Indonesia, 4(2), 186–194.

Rozaki, Z. (2020). COVID-19, Agriculture, and Food Security in Indonesia. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 8, 243–260.

Saefuddin, A. M. (1998). Desekularisasi Pemikiran: Landasan Islamisasi (Cetakan 4). Bandung: Mizan.

Saifullah, S. (2013). Refleksi Epistimologi dalam Metodologi Penelitian (Suatu Kontemplasi atas Pekerjaan Penelitian). De Jure: Jurnal Hukum Dan Syar’iah, 5(2), 178–187.

Shodiq, M. F. (2021). “Jogo Tonggo” Efektivitas Kearifan Lokal; Solusi Pandemi COVID-19. SALAM: Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Syar-i, 8(2), 423–440.

Soedjatmoko, Budiman, A., Noehardi, T. H., Tjokrowinoto, M., Manning, C., Nataatmadja, H., … Kleden Ignas. (1989). Ilmu-ilmu Sosial dalam Pembangunan di Dunia Ketiga (Cetakan 1). Yogyakarta: Pusat Latihan, Penelitian dan Pengembangan Masyarakat.

Sudirman, A., Djuyandi, Y., & Pratama, F. S. G. (2023). Memahami Dinamika Kerjasama Industri Pertahanan dalam Kerangka Indonesia Australia Defence Security Dialogue. Journal of Political Issues, 4(2).

Suriasumantri, J. S. (2009). Filsafat Ilmu Sebuah Pengantar Populer. Jakarta: Pustaka Harapan.

Syawie, M., & Sumarno, S. (2015). Kebijakan Berbasis Ilmu Pengetahuan. Sosio Informa: Kajian Permasalahan Sosial Dan Usaha Kesejahteraan Sosial, 1(1), 79–90. Retrieved from

Triyana, H. J. (2022). Conscientious Objection Before the Indonesian Constitutional Court. Constitutional Review, 8(2), 323–360.

Utami, T. W., & Lahdji, A. (2022). Modeling of Local Polynomial Kernel Nonparametric Regression for Covid Daily Cases In Semarang City, Indonesia. Media Statistika, 14(2), 206–215.

Wahana, P. (2016). Filsafat Ilmu Pengetahuan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Diamond.

Walt, S. M. (1991). The Renaissance of Security Studies. International Studies Quarterly, 35(2), 211–239.

Wingarta, P. S. (2016). Rejuvensi Bhineka Tunggal Ika (Pendekatan Kewaspadaan Nasional). Jurnal Kajian Lemhanas, 26, 17–30. Retrieved from

Yuan, W., Wang, J., Qiu, F., Chen, C., Kang, C., & Zeng, B. (2016). Robust Optimization-Based Resilient Distribution Network Planning Against Natural Disasters. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 7(6), 2817–2826.

Zacharia, A., Ahmadani, F., & Danianto, P. (2021). National Resilience Strengthen Through the Reserve Component to Resist Non-Military Threats. International Journal of Research-GRANTHAALAYAH, 9(5), 351–359.


Journal Terindex di Garuda

Office Address:
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat
Republic of Indonesia Defense University
Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, Paseban,Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10440, Indonesia

Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Pertahanan: Media Informasi tentang Kajian dan Strategi Pertahanan yang Mengedepankan Identity, Nasionalism dan Integrity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.