Musediq Olufemi Lawal(1), Rasheed Oyaromade(2), Akin George Ogunleye(3), Olawale Olufemi Akinrinde(4*), Young Kenneth Irhue(5),

(1) Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria.
(2) Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria.
(3) Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria.
(4) Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
(5) Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria.
(*) Corresponding Author


There is a growing recognition of the importance of health security to economic development globally. ‘Health security’ as a phenomenon continues to receive the attention of academics and policymakers in the course of ensuring a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being for all.  Nigeria’s health policy equally gives a premium to this.  The aim of this study, hinging on archival and qualitative research design, is to explore health security in Nigeria vis-à-vis the constraining social and environmental vulnerabilities.  The discourse took into account unfolding social challenges and various environmental problems coupled with the high level of poverty. This article indicates that social and environmental uncertainties interact with many parts of the health care system in a variety of ways. This hurts health security in Nigeria as a result of poor infrastructure development, insufficient government financing, the lack of an integrated system for disease prevention and monitoring, frequent policy reversals, security issues, and unimpressive health indicators. Because of this and considering the state of the Nigerian health care that is worsening on a global standard, it is obvious that health security is yet to have a strong footing.  For health security to have a meaningful impact on people's wellbeing, appropriate health services should be made accessible to those who need them.

Full Text:



Abel, M.-H. (2008). Competencies Management and Learning Organizational Memory. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(6).

Adeloye, A. J., & Rustum, R. (2015). Lagos (Nigeria) Flooding and Influence of Urban Planning. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning, 164(3), 175–187. Ice Publishing.

Adesoji, A. (2010). The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria. Africa Spectrum, 45(2), 95–108. Retrieved from

Adeyeye, K., Pasquire, C., Bouchlaghem, D., & Chandler, J. (2006). Exploring the Efficacy of Digital Tools for the Design and Construction of Hybrid Buildings. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Arcom Conference 2006, 663–673. Birmingham: Association of Researchers in Construction Management.

Ahmadu, H. J. (2019). Insight into the Dynamics and Menace of Cattle Rustling: A Case Study of Lake Chad Basin Area in Northern Nigeria. World Journal of Social Science Research, 6(1), 18–33. Retrieved from

Ahmadu, H. J. U., & Ayuba, H. (2018). The Role of Group Solidarity in Conflict between Farmers and Fulani Pastoralists: A Case Study of Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 12(3), 33–41.

Ahmed, A., & Gidado, K. (2008). Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Technologies for Buildings in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 24nd Annual Arcom Conference 2008, 1175–1182. Cardiff: Association of Researchers in Construction Management.

Ajaero, C. K., Mozie, A. T., Okeke, I. C., Okpanachi, J. P., & Onyishi, C. (2015). The Drought-Migration Nexus: Implications for Socio-Ecological Conflicts in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2 S1), 470–478.

Ajodo-Adebanjoko, A. (2016). Assessing Amnesty Program in The Niger Delta in The Face of Renewed Militancy in The Region. Nasarawa Journal of Political Science, 4(1), 150–168.

Akaeze, A. (2009). From Maitatsine to Boko Haram. Newswatch.

Akande, M. B. (2018). Power of leisure in Health. Journal of Health and Social Management, 25(1), 12–15.

Akinrinde, O. O. (2020). Social Injustice, Corruption and Nigeria’s National Security Quest: A Theoretical Discourse. Global Journal of Sociology: Current Issues, 10(2), 63–70.

Akinrinde, O. O., & Adebisi, A. M. (2021). A Micro-Political Analysis of Local Governance in Nigeria: The Case of Irepodun Local Government Authority. Przegląd Politologiczny, 4, 119–141. Retrieved from

Akinrinde, O. O., Osuwa, A., Olawoyin, K., & Morakinyo, D. A. (2021). Farmers-Herders Conflict and Nigeria’s Quest for Food Security: The Imperative Need for Information Communications Technology. Journal of Digital Food, Energy & Water Systems, 2(2), 33–54.

Akinrinde, O. O., & Oyewole, S. (2021). Neo-Colonialism and The Developmental Challenges of Post-Colonial Africa. Jurnal Pertahanan, 7(3).

Akinrinde, O., & Tar, U. (2021). Political Economy and the Dialectics of Xenophobia in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Journal of African-Centered Solutions in Peace and Security, 4(1), 50–63. Retrieved from

Aldis, W. (2008). Health Security as A Public Health Concept: A Critical Analysis. Health Policy and Planning, 23(6), 369–375.

Ale, A. (2009). Boko Haram: Soyinka Blames Government. Saturday Punch.

Alkire, S. (2003). A Conceptual Framework for Human Security. Oxford. Retrieved from

Bariweni, P. A., Tawari, C. C., & Abowei, J. F. N. (2012). Some Environmental Effects of Flooding in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1(1), 35–46.

Bello, A. S. (2013). Herdsmen and Farmers Conflicts in North-Eastern Nigeria: Causes, Repercussions, and Resolutions. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(5), 129–139.

Bianchi, S. M., & Spain, D. (1996). Women, Work, and Family in America (Population Bulletin). Nairobi: Population Reference Bureau.

Bishop, J., Kapila. Sachin, Hicks, F., Mitchell, P., & Vorhies, F. (2008). Building Biodiversity Business. London: Shell International Limited and the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved from

Booth, K. (2012). Theory of World Security. In Theory of World Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bradshaw, C. J., Sodhi, N. S., Peh, K. S. H., & Brook, B. W. (2007). Global Evidence that Deforestation Amplifies Flood Risk and Severity in the Developing World. Global Change Biology, 13, 2379–2395.

Campbell, J., & Harwood, A. (2011, June 24). Nigeria’s Challenge. Retrieved April 28, 2021, from The Atlantic website:

Carson, J. (2012). Nigeria, One Year after Elections: the US on Boko Haram, Democracy and Economy, A press release prepared for Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington DC.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). About Global Health Security. Retrieved March 17, 2021, from Global Health website:

Chan, M. (2009). Primary Health Care as a Route to Health Security. The Lancet, 373(9675), 1586–1587.

Chiu, Y.-W., Weng, Y.-H., Sjd, Y.-Y. S., Huang, C.-Y., Chang, Y.-C., & Kuo, K. N. (2009). The Nature of International Health Security. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 18(4), 679–683.

Chiu, Y. W., Huang, C. Y., Hung, H. T., & Lee, M. L. (2009). The Global Health Security. Issues & Studies, 35, 61–76.

Coe, M. T., & Foley, J. A. (2001). Human and Natural Impacts on the Water Resources of the Lake Chad Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(D4), 3349–3356.

Collins, A. (2019). Contemporary Security Studies. In Contemporary Security Studies (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cook, D. (2011). The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria. New York. Retrieved from

Cutter, S. L., Emrich, C. T., Webb, J. J., & Morath, D. (2009). Social Vulnerability to Climate Variability Hazards: A Review of the Literature. Columbia. Retrieved from

Davies, S. E. (2008). Securitizing Infectious Disease. International Affairs, 84(2), 295–313.

Egwemi, V. (2009). From Minority and Oil Rights Agitations to Militancy: Some thoughts on the Niger Delta Crisis. National Development Studies, 1(9), 25.

Elugbaju, A. S. (2018). Ife-Modakeke Crisis (1849-2000): Re-thinking the Conflict and Methods of Resolution. Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts, 5(8).

Enarson, E. (2007). Identifying and addressing social vulnerabilities. In Emergency Management: Principles and Practices for Local Government. Washington D.C.: ICMA Press.

Enarson, Elaine, Fothergill, A., & Peek, L. (2007). Gender and Disaster: Foundations and Directions. In Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Handbook of Disaster Research (pp. 130–146). New York: Springer.

Enarson, Elaine, & Morrow, B. (1998). The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Through Women’s Eyes. Westport: Praeger.

Fasona, M., Fabusoro, E., Sodiya, C., Adedayo, V., Olorunfemi, F., Elias, P., … Oloukoi, G. (2016). Some Dimensions of Farmers’-Pastoralists’ Conflicts in the Nigerian Savanna. Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective, 10(2), 87–108.

Few, R. (2007). Health and Climatic Hazards: Framing Social Research on Vulnerability, Response and Adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 17(2), 281–295.

Fidler, D. P. (2003). Public Health and National Security in the Global Age: Infectious Diseases, Bioterrorism, and Realpolitik. Maurer School of Law: Indiana University, pp. 787–856. Bloomington: Digital Repository Maurer Law. Retrieved from

Folami, O. M., & Olaiya, T. A. (2016). Gender, Storytelling and Peace Construction in a Divided Society: A Case Study of the Ife/Modakeke Conflict. Cogent Social Sciences, 2(1).

Fukuda-Parr, S. (2003). New Threats to Human Security in the Era of Globalization. Journal of Human Development, 4(2), 167–179.

Gandy, M. (2006). Water, Sanitation and the Modern City: Colonial and Post-colonial Experiences in Lagos and Mumbai. Retrieved from

George, I. N., & Ukpong, D. E. (2013). Contemporary Social Problems in Nigeria and its Impact on National Development: Implication for Guidance and Counselling Services. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(2), 167–173.

Giwa, A. (1999). Health and Demographics Profile in Nigeria. Nigeria: Ajose-JAP Academic Press Limited.

Haines, A., Kovats, R. S., Campbell-Lendrum, D., & Corvalan, C. (2006). Climate Change and Human Health: Impacts, Vulnerability and Public Health. Public Health, 120(7), 585–596.

Hardiman, M. (2003). The Revised International Health Regulations: a Framework for Global Health Security. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 21(2), 207–211.

Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons: The Population Problem has No Technical Solution; It Requires a Fundamental Extension in Morality. Science, 162(3859), 1243–1248.

Hazen, J. M., & Horner, J. (2007). Small Arms, Armed Violence, and Insecurity in Nigeria: The Niger Delta in Perspective. Retrieved March 21, 2021, from Document Library website:

Hemphill, D. D. (1993). Agricultural Plastics as Solid Waste: What are the Options for Disposal? HortTechnology, 3(1), 70–73.

Ijaz, K. (2018). E-103 Global Health Security–Why is it Important? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 77.

Izah, S. C., Aigberua, A. O., & Nduka, J. O. (2018). Factors Affecting the Population Trend of Biodiversity in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Avian & Wildlife Biology, 3(3), 199–207.

Jamison, D. T., Lau, L. J., & Wang, J. (2005). Health’s Contribution to Economic Growth in An Environment of Partially Endogenous Technical Progress. In Health and Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Kalipeni, E., & Kamlongera, C. (1996). The role of ‘Theatre for Development’ in mobilizing rural communities for Primary Health Care: The case of Liwonde PHC Unit in Southern Malawi. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 11, 53–78.

Lekwa, G., & Whiteside, E. P. (1986). Coastal Plain Soils of Southeastern Nigeria: I. Morphology, Classification, and Genetic Relationships. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50(1), 154–160.

Lloyd, S. J., Kovats, R. S., & Chalabi, Z. (2011). Climate Change, Crop Yields, and Undernutrition: Development of a Model to Quantify the Impact of Climate Scenarios on Child Undernutrition. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(12).

McInnes, C., & Lee, K. (2006). Health, Security and Foreign Policy. Review of International Studies, 32(1).

Moon, S., Sridhar, D., Pate, M. A., Jha, A. K., Clinton, C., Delaunay, S., … Piot, P. (2015). Will Ebola Change the Game? Ten Essential Reforms Before the Next Pandemic. The Report of the Harvard-LSHTM Independent Panel on the Global Response to Ebola. Health Policy, 386, 2204–2221.

Mostafavi, E. (2017). Health Security. Research Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases Pasteur Institute of Iran. Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics. Retrieved from

Mugisha, F., Bocar, K., Dong, H., Chepng’eno, G., & Sauerborn, R. (2004). The Two Faces of Enhancing Utilization of Health-care Services: Determinants of Patient Initiation and Retention in Rural Burkina Faso. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82(8), 572–579. Retrieved from

Nenibarini, Z. (2004). Impact of Extractive Industries on Biodiversity of the Niger Delta. Retrieved from

Nnamuchi, O. (2007). The right to health in Nigeria: ‘Right to health in the Middle East’ project, Law School, University of Aberdeen. Retrieved from

Nwobi, F. O. (2019). Security and Development Consequences of Communal Conflict: Reflection on Aguleri-Umuleri Conflict in Anambra State. NG-Journal of Social Development, 8(1), 17–22. Retrieved from

Obiakor, N. J. (2016). History, Land and Conflict in Nigeria: The Aguleri-Umuleri Experience, 1933-1999. UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities, 17(2), 167–184.

Odumosu, O. (1996). Structural Adjustment and its impact on Social Services. In A. Fadahunsi & T. Babawale (Eds.), Nigeria Beyond Structural Adjustment: Towards a Popular Democratic Development Alternative. Nigeria: PANAF Publishing Inc.

Okoli, A. C. (2013). The Political Ecology of the Niger Delta Crisis and the Prospects of Lasting Peace in the Post-Amnesty Period. Global Journal of Human Social Science Political Science, 13(3), 37–46. Retrieved from

Olaniyan, A., & Yahaya, A. (2016). Cows, Bandits, and Violent Conflicts: Understanding Cattle Rustling in Northern Nigeria. Africa Spectrum, 51(3), 93–105. Retrieved from

Omipidan, I. (2009). Why North is on Fire. Sunday Sun.

Onuoha, F. C. (2008). Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts: A Focus on the Implications of the Diminishing Water Resources of Lake Chad for North-Eastern Nigeria. African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 8(2), 35–61.

Onwujekwe, O., Onoka, C., Uguru, N., Nnenna, T., Uzochukwu, B., Eze, S., … Petu, A. (2010). Preferences for Benefit Packages for Community-Based Health Insurance: An Exploratory Study in Nigeria. BMC Health Services Research, 10. Retrieved from

Onwuzuruigbo, I. (2011). Horizontal Inequalities and Communal Conflicts: The Case of Aguleri and Umuleri Communities of South-Eastern Nigeria. Africa, 81(4), 567–587.

Onyenwe, E., Nnadozie, R., Ibedugha, B. N., & Ozoemena, T. C. (2017). Habitat Fragmentation in Nigeria: A Cryptic but Devastating Phenomenon that Requires Urgent Attention. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 4(6), 40–43. Retrieved from

Oseni, W., Robinson, H. S., & Fong, D. (2018). Healthcare Facilities in Nigeria: Redefining Standards and Developing Performance Benchmarks for the Professionalisation of FM Practices. International Conference on Professionalism and Ethics in Construction. London. Retrieved from

Raheem, U. A. (2006). Social Justice and the Political Economy of Health Care in Nigeria: Some Empirical Observations. Ibadan Journal of the Social Sciences, 4(2).

Ratcliffe, R. (2019, December 6). “This Place Used to be Greenâ€: The Brutal Impact of Oil in the Niger Delta. Retrieved March 22, 2021, from The Guardian Picture Essay website:

Rokvić, V., & Z., J. (2015). Health Issues as Security Issues. Vojno Delo, 67(6), 53–69.

Ruger, J. P., Jamison, D. T., Bloom, D. E., & Canning, D. (2012). Health and the Economy. In M. H. Merson, R. E. Black, & A. J. Mills (Eds.), Global Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies (3rd ed.). London: International Public Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems and Policies (Second Edition).

Rushton, S. (2011). Global Health Security: Security for Whom? Security from What? Political Studies, 59(4).

Rushton, S., & Youde, J. (2014). Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security. In Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security. London: Routledge.

Salihu, H. A., Isiaka, M., & Abdulaziz, I. (2019). The Growing Phenomenon of Money Rituals-Motivated Killings in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation into the Factors Responsible. UKH Journal of Social Sciences, 3(2), 32–44.

Scharoun, K., Van Caulil, K., & Liberman, A. (2002). Bioterrorism vs. Health Security—Crafting a Plan of Preparedness. The Health Care Manager, 21(1), 74–92.

The World Bank. (2013, August 27). World Bank and HIV/AIDS: The Facts. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from

Thornton, P. K., Ericksen, P. J., Herrero, M., & Challinor, A. J. (2014). Climate Variability and Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Review. Global Change Biology, 20, 3313–3328.

Udoh, C. O. (2002). Health and Illness Behaviour. Nigeria: Chris-Rose Ventures Limited.

United Nations Children Fund. (2001). Children’s and Women’s Rights in Nigeria: A Wake-up Call – Situation Assessment and Analysis. Nigeria: National Planning Commission and UNICEF Nigeria.

United Nations Children Fund. (2016). The State of the World’s Children 2016: A Fair Chance for Every Child. New York: United Nations Children Fund.

United Nations Development Programme. (1994). Human Development Report 1994. New York. Retrieved from

United Nations Environmental Programme. (2011). Ogoni land Oil Assessment Reveals the Extent of Environmental Contamination and Threats to Biodiversity. Retrieved from https//

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive: Policy and Practical Guidelines. , United Nations § (2009). United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.

United States Agency for International Development. (2021, July 12). Global Health: Maternal and Child Health is One of Nigeria’s Most Critical Development Challenges. Retrieved August 24, 2021, from USAID website:

Usman, E. (2010, June 10). Shocking Revelations of Man Arrested with Fresh Human Parts. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from Crime Alert website:

Usman, E. (2017, September 2). Why Killings for Rituals are on the Increase in Nigeria. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from News website:

Wilson, K., McDougall, C., & Forster, A. (2009). The Responsibility of Healthcare Institutions to Protect Global Health Security. Healthcare Quarterly, 12(1), 56–60.

Wilson, K., Von Tigerstrom, B., & McDougall, C. (2008). Protecting Global Health Security Through the International Health Regulations: Requirements and cChallenges. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179(1), 44–48. Retrieved from

World Health Organisation. (1978). Declaration of Alma-Ata: International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978. Retrieved from

World Health Organisation. (2005). International Health Regulations (3rd ed.). World Health Organisation.

World Health Organisation. (2020). Health security. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from Health Topics website:

World Health Organization. (2017). Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Retrieved from


Journal Terindex di Garuda

Office Address:
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat
Republic of Indonesia Defense University
Jl. Salemba Raya No.14, Paseban,Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10440, Indonesia

Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Pertahanan: Media Informasi tentang Kajian dan Strategi Pertahanan yang Mengedepankan Identity, Nasionalism dan Integrity is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.